Knowledge management in the software industry: how Scrum activities support a knowledge management cycle

Nelson Tenório, Danieli Pinto, Marcio José Silva, Iara Carnevale de Almeida, Flávio Bortolozzi


Knowledge is the primary asset of the software industry which increases the complexity of the software development activities. Knowledge Management (KM) is an important practice that offers processes namely KM cycles and addressed to knowledge capture, creation, storage, dissemination, sharing, and use. Thereby, understanding different means to consolidate individual’s knowledge within the software industry is relevant to software development practitioners and researchers. Therefore, this article discusses how Scrum activities support KM cycle to convert the individual’s knowledge into common knowledge within software development teams. Our analysis points out that KM cycle combined with Scrum practices is a potential tool to disseminate individual knowledge across software development team members.


Knowledge processes; Software development; Agile methods.

Texto completo:

PDF (English) HTML (English)


Ahmed, A., Ahmad, S., Ehsan, N., Mirza, E., & Sarwar, S. Z. (2010). Agile Software Development: Impact on Productivity and Quality. In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE ICMIT, Singapore.

Andrej, M., Hvizdová, E., & Zák, S. (2012). Knowledge management as a significant determinant of the competitive advantage sustainability. Journal of Economics. 60(10), 1041-1058.

Asrar-Ul-Haq, M. & Anwar, S. (2016). A systematic review of knowledge management and knowledge sharing: trends, issues, and challenges. Cogent Business & Management, 3.

Aurum, A., Daneshgar, F., Ward, J. (2008). Investigating Knowledge Management practices in software development organisations - an Australian experience. Information and Software Technology, 50(6), 511–533.

Bannerman, P. L., Hossain, E., & Jeffery, R. (2012). Scrum practice mitigation of global software development coordination challenges: A distinctive advantage? In Proceedings of Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Beck, K., Beedle, M., Bennekum, A. V., Cockburn, A., Cunningham, W., Fowler, M.,… Thomas, D. (2001). Manifesto for Agile Software Development. Retrieved from

Binuyo, G. O., Oyebisi, T. O., Olayinka, A., Afolabi, B. S. (2015). Evaluation of the Factors influencing the Indigenous Software Products Development in Nigeria. International Journal on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions (ICTer), 7(3), 1–8.

Bjornson, F. O. & Dingsoyr, T. (2008). Knowledge management in software engineering: a systematic review of studied concepts, findings and research methods used. Information and Software Technology, 50(11), 1055–1068.

Brito, M. F., Figueiredo, R. C., Venson, E., Canedo, E. D., & Ribeiro Junior, L. C. M. (2017). Knowledge Transfer in a Management Process for Outsourced Agile Software Development. In Proceedings of 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Cámara, J., Correia, P., Lemos, R., Garlan, D., Gomes, P., Schmerl, B., & Ventura, R. (2016). Incorporating Architecture-Based Self-Adaptation into an Adaptive Industrial Software System. Journal of Systems and Software, 122, 507-523.

CEN. (2004). European Guide to good Practice in Knowledge Management. Management Science, 50(3), 352–364.

Cervone, H. F. (2011). Understanding agile Project management methods using Scrum. International Digital Library Perspectives, 27(1).

Chen, H., Ragsdell, G., & O’Brien, A. (2014). Identification of Tacit Knowledge Associated with Experience: a Chinese Software Industry Study. In Proceedings of 15th European Conference on Knowledge Management. Portugal.

Cristal, M., Wildt, D., & Prikladnicki, R. (2008). Usage of SCRUM Practices within a Global Company. In Proceedings of International Conference on Global Software Engineering.

Dalkir, K. (2011). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. London: The MIT Press.

Dingsøyr, T., Nerur, S., Balijepally, V., & Moe, N. B. (2012). A decade of agile methodologies: towards explaining agile software development. Journal System Software, 85(6), 1213–1221.

Dönmez, D., Grote, G., & Brusoni, S. (2016). Routine interdependencies as a source of stability and flexibility. A study of agile software development teams. Information and Organization, 26, 63-83.

Dorairaj, S., Noble, J., & Malik, P. (2012). Knowledge management in distributed agile software development. In Agile Conference (AGILE).

Dyba, T., & Dingsøyr, T. (2008). Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review. Information and Software Technology, 50, 833–859.

Eloranta, V. P. & Koskimies, K. (2012). Aligning architecture knowledge management with Scrum. In Proceedings of the WICSA/ECSA 2012 Companion. Helsinki.

Eloranta, V. P., Koskimies, K., & Mikkonen, T. (2016). Exploring ScrumBut – an empirical study of Scrum anti-patterns. Information and Software, 74, 194-203.

Evans, M., Dalkir, K., & Bidian, C. A. (2014). Holistic View of the Knowledge Life Cycle: The Knowledge Management Cycle (KMC) Model. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(2), 85-97.

Goldoni, V. & Oliveira, M. (2010). Knowledge management metrics in software development companies in Brazil. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(2), 301-313.

Highsmith, J. & Consortium, C. (2002). What is agile software development? The Journal of Defense Software Engineering, 15, 4-9.

Ipe, M. (2003). Knowledge Sharing in Organizations: a conceptual framework. Human Resource Development Review, 2(4), 337-359.

Krogh, G. V. & Roos, J. (1995). A perspective on knowledge, competence and strategy. Personnel Review, 24(3), 56-76.

Lei, H., Ganjeizadeh, F., Jayachandran, P. K., Ozcan, P. (2017). A statistical analysis of the effects of Scrum and Kanban on software development projects. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 43, 59-67.

Lyles, M. & Schwenk, C. R. (2007). Top management, strategy and organizational knowledge structures. Journal of Management Studies, 29(2), 155–174,

Marçal, A., Freitas, B. C. C., Soares, F. S. F., & Belchior, A. D. (2007). Mapping CMMI project management process areas to SCRUM practices. In Proceedings of the Software Engineering Workshop.

Meihami, B. & Meihami, H. (2014). Knowledge management a way to gain a competitive advantage in firms (evidence of manufacturing companies). International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 14, 80-91.

Melo, C.O., Cruzes, D. S., Kon, F., & Conradi, R. (2013). Interpretative case studies on agile team productivity and management. Information and Software Technology, 55(2), 412-427.

Milton, N., Shadbolt, N., Cottam, H., & Hammersley, M. (1999). Towards a knowledge technology for knowledge management. International Journal Human-Computer Studies, 51, 615-641.

Moe, N. B., Dingsøyr, T., & Dybá, T. A. (2010). A teamwork model for understanding an agile team: a case study of a Scrum Project. Information and Software Technology, 52, 480-491.

Morampudi, N. S. & Raj, G. (2013). Evaluating Strengths and Weaknesses of Agile Scrum Framework using Knowledge Management. International Journal of Computer Applications, 65 (23).

Nawinna, D. P. (2011). A model of knowledge management: delivering competitive advantage to small & medium scale software et al industry in Sri Lanka. In Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, 2011.

Nerur, S., Mahapatra, R., & Mangalaraj, G. (2005). Challenges of Migrating to Agile Methodologies. Communications of the ACM, 48(5), 73-78.

Ortegón, A. M., Lasso, A. L., & Steil, A. V. (2016). Organizational Strategy and the Knowledge Management Cycle: Bukowitz and William´s Model in Practice. Espacios, 37(7), 11.

Pinoa, F.J., Pedreira, O., García, F., Luaces, M. R., Piattini, M. (2010). Using Scrum to guide the execution of software process improvement in small organizations. The Journal of Systems and Software, 83, 1662–1677.

Rola, P., Kuchta, D., & Kopczyk, D. (2016). Conceptual model of working space for Agile (Scrum) project team. Journal of Systems and Software, 118, 49-63.

Schwaber, K. & Sutherland, J. (2016). The Scrum GuideTM - The definitive guide to Scrum: the rules of the game. Retrieved from

Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile Project Management with Scrum. EUA: Microsoft Press.

Singh, A., Singh, K., & Sharma, N. (2014). Agile knowledge management: a survey of Indian perceptions. Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, 10, 297.

Sungkur, R. & Ramasawmy, M. (2014). Knowledge4Scrum, a novel knowledge management tool for agile distributed teams, VINE, 44(3), 394-419.

Takpuie, D. & Tanner, M. (2016). Investigating the Characteristics Needed by Scrum Team Members to Successfully Transfer Tacit Knowledge During Agile Software Projects. The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation, 19(1), 36-54.

Tenório, N., Pinto, D., Vidotti, A. F., Santos, M. O., Urbano, G. C., & Bortolozzi, F. (2017). Tool Based on Knowledge Management Process: An Interview Protocol to Gather Functional Requirements from Software Industry Experts. Matter: International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(1), 45-54.

Vlaanderen, K., Jansen, S., Brinkkemper, S., & Jaspers, E. (2011). The agile requirements refinery: applying SCRUM principles to software product management. Information and Software Technology, 53.

Wiig, K. M. (1997). Knowledge management: an introduction and perspective. Journal of Knowledge Management, 6–14.

Zhang, X. & Dorn, B. (2011). Agile Practices in a Small-Scale, Time-Intensive web development Project. In Eight International Conference on Information Technology, 2011.



  • Não há apontamentos.

NAVUS - Revista de Gestão e Tecnologia, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. ISSN - 2237-4558 

Membro da Associação Brasileira de Editores Científicos 


Desde 18/10/2017


Licença Creative Commons

Os originais publicados na Navus estão disponibilizados de acordo com a Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-Uso não-comercial-Vedada a criação de obras derivadas 3.0 Brasil.